أسماك وبرمائيات

القرش الابيض الكبير

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القرش الأبيض الكبير (Carcharodon carcharias) هو أكبر سمكة قرش موجودة في جميع المحيطات الرئيسية ، وخاصة المياه الساحلية الباردة والمعتدلة ، وهو أحد أكثر الحيوانات المفترسة رعبا لجميع الحيوانات البحرية. يُطلق على اسم مجموعة من أسماك القرش البيضاء الكبيرة اسم “المدرسة” أو “الضحلة”. تسمى أسماك القرش الصغيرة “الجراء”.

توزيع القرش الأبيض الكبير

شوهدت أسماك القرش البيضاء الكبير على طول سواحل كاليفورنيا إلى ألاسكا والساحل الشرقي للولايات المتحدة ومعظم ساحل الخليج وهاواي ومعظم أمريكا الجنوبية وجنوب إفريقيا وأستراليا (باستثناء الساحل الشمالي) ونيوزيلندا والبحر الأبيض المتوسط البحر ، وغرب إفريقيا إلى الدول الاسكندنافية ، واليابان ، والساحل الشرقي للصين وجنوب روسيا.

أسماء أخرى للقرش الأبيض الكبير

يُعرف القرش الأبيض الكبير أيضًا باسم القرش الأبيض ، والمؤشر الأبيض ، والمؤشر الأزرق ، وآكل الإنسان ، وقرش مانيلا ، والموت الأبيض والأبيض العظيم.

خصائص القرش الأبيض الكبير

القرش الأبيض الكبير هو سمكة ضخمة مفترسة يمكن أن يصل طولها من 15 قدمًا (4.6 مترًا) إلى أكثر من 20 قدمًا (6 أمتار). يمكن أن تزن أكثر من 2268 كجم (5000 رطل). الإناث أكبر من الذكور ، كما هو الحال مع معظم أسماك القرش.

إقرأ أيضا:معلومات عن سمكة الطبل واهم صفاتها

أسماك القرش البيضاء الكبيرة لونها رمادي أردوازي يساعدها على التمويه على قاع البحر الصخري أثناء انتظار مهاجمة فرائسها. بطونهم بيضاء ومن هنا حصلوا على أسمائهم. تتميز أسماك القرش البيضاء العظيمة بشكل طوربيد انسيابي يمكّنها من أن تكون سباحًا قويًا للغاية. تساعد ذيولها الكبيرة والقوية على شكل هلال على دفعها بسرعة عبر المياه. على الرغم من حجمها الضخم ، يمكن لأسماك القرش القاتلة أن تسبح بسرعة 15 ميلًا في الساعة (24 كيلومترًا في الساعة).

تم تجهيز جسم أسماك القرش البيضاء الكبيرة بخمس شقوق خيشومية وزعنفة شرجية و 3 زعانف رئيسية ولكن ليس بها أشواك زعنفة. تقع الزعنفة الظهرية على ظهرها وتوجد زعنفتان صدريتان على جانبيها. عندما يكون القرش بالقرب من السطح ، يمكن رؤية الزعنفة الظهرية وجزء من الذيل فوق الماء.

أسماك القرش البيضاء الكبيرة لها أفواه ضخمة مبطنة بأسنان حادة مسننة وشفرة مثلثة الشكل. الأسنان مرتبة في صفوف. يتم استخدام أول صفين للحصول على فريسة والصفوف الأخرى تدور في مكانها حسب الحاجة. يبلغ طول الأسنان 7.5 سم. مع فقدان الأسنان أو تكسيرها أو تآكلها ، يتم استبدالها بأسنان جديدة. تم تجهيز أسماك القرش البيضاء العظيمة بأكثر من 3000 سن في وقت واحد.

حواس قرش

تحتوي أسماك القرش البيضاء الكبيرة على أنف مخروطية كبيرة ذات حاسة شم ممتازة يمكنها من خلالها اكتشاف الفريسة بسهولة. تستخدم أنف سمك القرش فقط للرائحة وليس للتنفس ، وتستخدم خياشيمها للتنفس. يعتمد سمك القرش كليًا على أجهزته الحسية في جميع جوانب حياته. أحد الأسباب التي تجعل أسماك القرش مفترسة جيدة للغاية هي قدرتها الحسية المذهلة. حواسهم رائعة مثل أي سمكة أو ثدييات أخرى. تعتمد أسماك القرش على نظامها الحسي المعقد في جميع جوانب حياتها ، والصيد ، والتغذية ، والتزاوج ، والوجود العام.

إقرأ أيضا:علجوم سورينام

تتمتع أسماك القرش البيضاء الكبيرة بالقدرة على اكتشاف قطرة دم واحدة في 25 جالونًا (100 لتر) من الماء ويمكنها حتى استشعار كميات ضئيلة من الدم في الماء حتى مسافة 3 أميال (5 كيلومترات).

  • السمع – تتمتع أسماك القرش بسمع حاد ويمكنها سماع الفريسة من على بعد أميال عديدة.
  • الشم – تعتمد أسماك القرش بشكل أساسي على حاسة الشم لاكتشاف الفريسة.
  • الخط الجانبي – يستخدم هذا النظام للكشف عن الحركة والاهتزازات في المياه المحيطة.
  • البصر – لدى القرش عيون سوداء قاتمة لها طبقات عاكسة تسمى tapetum lucidum تقع خلف شبكية العين. تم العثور على تعديل آخر في بعض أسماك القرش وهو وجود غشاء مائل. هذا الهيكل عبارة عن غشاء مغطى بالأسنان يحمي العين. يتم إغلاقه عندما يمر القرش بالقرب من الأشياء وأيضًا أثناء العض أو التغذية.
  • أمبولة لورنزيني – هذه حويصلات ومسام صغيرة تظهر حول رأس القرش وتكون مرئية للعين المجردة. يتم استخدامها للكشف عن المجالات المغناطيسية الضعيفة التي تنتجها الأسماك الأخرى ، على الأقل في نطاقات قصيرة. يمكّن هذا القرش من تحديد موقع الفريسة المدفونة في الرمال أو الحركة القريبة.

حمية سمك القرش الأبيض الكبير

القرش الأبيض الكبير هو من آكلات اللحوم الشرسة التي تحب أن تضرب فريستها من الأسفل ، وتكون قادرة على ترك الماء تمامًا والانهيار مثل الحوت. لا شيء آمن من هذه السمكة العملاقة التي تمتزج مع المياه المظلمة وتمكنها من الاقتراب من فريسة مطمئنة. عندما يتم رؤية حيوان ما ، يتسارع القرش بسرعة إلى السطح ويصطدم بفريسته ، ويصعقه في نفس الوقت ويأخذ لدغة كبيرة. ثم يعودون إلى المياه لتتغذى على الجثة.

إقرأ أيضا:معلومات عن سمكة الذئب الانقليس

القرش الأبيض الكبير يصطاد أسد البحر

تتغذى أسماك القرش البيضاء الكبيرة على مجموعة متنوعة من الحيوانات البحرية بما في ذلك الحيتان ذات الأسنان الصغيرة مثل الحيتان البيضاء والفقمات وأسود البحر والسلاحف البحرية والجيف (حيوانات ميتة تطفو في الماء). وجبة كبيرة يمكن أن ترضي القرش الأبيض العظيم لمدة تصل إلى شهرين.

لا تمضغ أسماك القرش البيضاء الكبيرة طعامها ، وبدلاً من ذلك ، تمزق أسنانها الحادة الحادة الفريسة إلى قطع بحجم الفم يتم ابتلاعها بالكامل.

موطن القرش الأبيض الكبير

تم العثور على أسماك القرش البيضاء الكبيرة في جميع المحيطات والسواحل الرئيسية حول العالم ، وخاصة المياه الساحلية الباردة والمعتدلة.

سلوك القرش الأبيض الكبير

عادة ما تكون أسماك القرش البيضاء الكبيرة حيوانات منعزلة ولكن عادة ما يتم ملاحظتها وهي تسافر في أزواج.

يسبح القرش الأبيض العظيم في وضعية صلبة تشبه التونة ، على عكس السكتة الدماغية المتعرجة التي تصيب معظم أسماك القرش.

تكاثر سمك القرش الأبيض الكبير

تصل أسماك القرش البيضاء الكبيرة إلى مرحلة النضج الجنسي عند حوالي 15 عامًا. عندما تولد أسماك القرش ، عادة مع عشرات من الأشقاء ، تصبح على الفور مستقلة وتسبح بعيدًا عن أمها التي قد تراها فريسة وتأكلها.

أسماك القرش حديثة الولادة (الجراء) ليست صغيرة على الإطلاق ويمكن أن يبلغ طولها حوالي 5 أقدام (1.5 متر) بالفعل. مع نموها ، سوف يتضاعف حجمها ثلاث مرات على الأقل. تتغذى صغار أسماك القرش بشكل عام على الأسماك والشفنين وأسماك القرش الأخرى.

يبلغ العمر الافتراضي للقرش الأبيض الكبير حوالي 30 عامًا أو أكثر.

القرش الأبيض الكبير والبشر

على الرغم من تسجيل أسماك القرش البيضاء الكبيرة لمهاجمة البشر ، إلا أننا لسنا في الواقع في قائمة طعامهم. يُعتقد أن أسماك القرش هذه فضوليّة فقط وأخذ عينات من العض قبل الإفراج عن ضحيتها. معظم هجمات القرش الأبيض العظيمة ليست قاتلة. تمثل أسماك القرش البيضاء الكبيرة ما يقرب من نصف إلى ثلث جميع هجمات أسماك القرش المائة المبلغ عنها سنويًا. من بين هذه الهجمات 30-50 ، حوالي 10-15 قاتلة.

حالة حفظ سمك القرش الأبيض الكبير

يعتبر القرش الأبيض الكبيرة من الأنواع المهددة بالانقراض ولكن تم تصنيفه على أنه “ضعيف” من قبل الاتحاد الدولي لحفظ الطبيعة. تشمل التهديدات التي تتعرض لها هذه الكائنات البحرية الضخمة الصيد الجائر والصيد العرضي في الشباك الخيشومية. الأرقام تتناقص بسبب هذه العوامل.

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