أسماك وبرمائيات

القرش الممرضة : المميزات والنظام الغذائي والسلوك

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سمك القرش الممرض هو قرش شائع يسكن القاع ، يوجد في المياه الاستوائية وشبه الاستوائية على الرفوف القارية والجزرية. تم العثور على ممرضة القرش في كثير من الأحيان على عمق متر واحد أو أقل ولكن قد تحدث على عمق 12 متر. موائلها المشتركة هي الشعاب المرجانية والقنوات بين جزر المنغروف والمسطحات الرملية.

يوجد القرش الممرض في غرب المحيط الأطلسي من رود آيلاند نزولاً إلى جنوب البرازيل ، في شرق المحيط الأطلسي من الكاميرون إلى الغابون ، في شرق المحيط الهادئ من جنوب باجا كاليفورنيا إلى بيرو وحول جزر الكاريبي.

مميزات االقرش الممرضة

لون أسماك القرش الممرضة بني مصفر فاتح إلى بني غامق ، مع أو بدون بقع داكنة صغيرة. سمكة القرش الممرضة لديها جسم مسطح ورأس عريض مستدير مع اثنين من الحديد البارزين بين الخياشيم التي تستخدم للمساعدة في العثور على الطعام. تمتلئ أفواههم بصفوف من الأسنان الصغيرة المسننة لسحق الفريسة ذات القشرة الصلبة. أسماك القرش الممرضة ، يبلغ متوسط ​​طولها 7.5 إلى 9 أقدام (2.2 إلى 2.7 متر) وتزن 165 إلى 230 رطلاً (75 إلى 105 كيلوغرامات) وهي أكبر قليلاً من أسماك القرش الممرضة.

العمر التقديري لنضج سمكة القرش الممرضة 18 سنة للذكور و 20 إلى 22 سنة للإناث.

إقرأ أيضا:حقائق مذهلة حول مانتا راي (Manta Ray)

حمية القرش الممرضة

أسماك القرش الممرضة هي حيوانات ليلية ، تقضي اليوم في مجموعات كبيرة غير نشطة تصل إلى 40 فردًا. مختبئة تحت الحواف المغمورة أو في شقوق داخل الشعاب المرجانية ، يبدو أن أسماك القرش الممرضة تفضل مواقع استراحة محددة وستعود إليها كل يوم بعد ليالي الصيد. في الليل ، تكون أسماك القرش منعزلة إلى حد كبير. تقضي أسماك القرش الممرضة معظم وقتها في البحث عن الطعام في الرواسب السفلية بحثًا عن الطعام. يتكون نظامهم الغذائي بشكل أساسي من القشريات والرخويات وسمك التونيك والأسماك الأخرى مثل الكركند الشوكي وسرطان البحر والجمبري وقنافذ البحر والأخطبوط والحبار والقواقع البحرية وذوات الصدفتين وعلى وجه الخصوص الراي اللساع.

يُعتقد أن أسماك القرش الممرضة تستفيد من الأسماك الخاملة التي قد تكون أسرع من أن تصطادها أسماك القرش ، على الرغم من أن أفواهها الصغيرة تحد من حجم عناصر الفرائس ، إلا أن أسماك القرش لديها تجاويف كبيرة في الحلق تستخدم كنوع من صمام المنفاخ. بهذه الطريقة ، يمكن لأسماك القرش الممرضة أن تمتص فريستها. ومن المعروف أيضًا أن أسماك القرش الممرضة ترعى الطحالب والمرجان.

تكاثر القرش الممرضة

يمتد موسم التزاوج من أواخر يونيو حتى نهاية يوليو. تعتبر أسماك القرش الممرضة من البيوض ، مما يعني أن البيض يتطور ويفقس داخل جسم الأنثى حيث تتطور صغارها إلى أن تحدث الولادة الحية. فترة الحمل هي 6 أشهر ، مع وجود 21 – 28 جروًا نموذجيًا. تكون دورة التزاوج كل سنتين ، حيث تستغرق الإناث 18 شهرًا لإنتاج دفعة أخرى من البيض. تولد أسماك القرش الممرضة الصغيرة متطورة تمامًا بطول حوالي 30 سم. لديهم لون مرقط يتلاشى مع تقدم العمر.

إقرأ أيضا:معلومات وحقائق عن سمك الذئب

سلوك القرش الممرضة

بشكل عام ، بطيئة وبطيئة ، تقضي أسماك القرش الممرضة معظم وقتها في الراحة في قاع المحيط. وقد لوحظت أسماك القرش الممرضة وهي تستريح على القاع مع دعم أجسامها على زعانفها ، مما قد يوفر مأوى زائفًا للقشريات التي تقوم بعد ذلك بنصب كمين لها وتأكلها. إذا كان لا بد من التحرك ، فقد تستخدم سمكة القرش الممرضة زعانفها الأمامية الكبيرة (أو الصدرية) “للسير” على طول قاع المحيط.

نظرًا لأن القرش الممرض يمكنه ضخ الماء فوق خياشيمه ، فإنه لا يحتاج إلى السباحة من أجل التنفس.

إقرأ أيضا:الضفدع المشترك : الموطن والنظام الغذائي والسلوك

على عكس العديد من أسماك القرش ، فإن سمكة القرش الممرضة غير مهاجرة. تتكيف سمكة القرش الممرضة مع البرد من خلال أن تصبح أقل نشاطًا.

حالة حفظ القرش الممرضة

لا يتم صيد سمك القرش الممرضة على نطاق واسع تجاريًا ، ولكن نظرًا لسلوكه البطيء ، فهو هدف سهل لمصايد الأسماك المحلية. جلده متين بشكل استثنائي وهو ذو قيمة عالية للجلد. يؤكل لحمها طازجًا ومملحًا ويستخدم كبدها في الزيت. لا يؤخذ على أنه سمكة لعبة. تم الإبلاغ عنه في بعض الهجمات غير المبررة على البشر ولكن لا يُنظر إليه عمومًا على أنه تهديد.

أسماك القرش الممرضة شائعة في جميع أنحاء مداها ولكنها لا تزال تعتبر “قريبة من التهديد”.

لا يوجد نوع معروف يفترس أسماك القرش الممرضة بانتظام ، على الرغم من وجودها في محتويات معدة أسماك القرش الليموني وأسماك القرش النمر وأسماك القرش الثور وأسماك القرش ذات رأس المطرقة الكبيرة.

السابق
ماعز الجبل
التالي
كل ما يخص الذئب المكسيكي

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