أسماك وبرمائيات

القرش النمر : الخصائص والتكاثر والنظام الغذائي

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يعتبر قرش النمر أحد أكبر أسماك القرش في العالم.

تم العثور على قرش النمر في العديد من المناطق الاستوائية والمعتدلة في محيطات العالم وهو شائع بشكل خاص حول الجزر في وسط المحيط الهادئ. إنه العضو الوحيد من جنس “Galeocerdo”.

غالبًا ما يوجد قرش النمر بالقرب من الساحل ، في المياه الاستوائية وشبه الاستوائية بشكل أساسي ، على الرغم من أنه يمكن أن يقيم في المياه المعتدلة.

خصائص قرش النمر

يعتبر القرش النمر عضوًا في رتبة Carcharhiniformes من هذه الرتبة وتتميز بوجود غشاء مائل فوق العينين وزعنفتين ظهريتين وزعنفة شرجية وخمسة شقوق خيشومية. إنه أكبر عضو في عائلة Carcharhinidae ، ويشار إليه عادةً باسم أسماك القرش المقدَّمة. تضم هذه العائلة بعض أسماك القرش المعروفة الأخرى مثل القرش الأزرق وسمك القرش الليموني وسمك القرش الثور.

يبلغ متوسط ​​طول أسماك القرش الناضجة 3.25 مترًا (11 قدمًا) إلى 4.25 مترًا (14 قدمًا) وتزن 385 إلى 909 كيلوجرامًا (850 إلى 2000 رطل). أثقل عينة تم تسجيلها حتى الآن ، سمكة قرش تم صيدها في نيوكاسل ، نيو ساوث ويلز ، أستراليا في عام 1954 وقياس 5.5 متر فقط (18 قدمًا) ، ووزنها 1524 كيلوجرامًا (3360 رطلاً). كانت أكبر عينة قرش النمر 7.3 متر (24 قدمًا) وهي منافسة لأكبر سمكة آكلة اللحوم إلى جانب القرش الأبيض الكبير.

إقرأ أيضا:قرش الشعاب المرجانية الكاريبي

يمكن أن يتراوح جلد قرش النمر عادة من اللون الأزرق أو الأخضر إلى الضوء مع اللون الأبيض أو الأصفر الفاتح تحت البطن. تظهر البقع والخطوط الداكنة المميزة في أسماك القرش الصغيرة وتتلاشى مع نضوج القرش.

رأس القرش النمر على شكل إسفين إلى حد ما ، مما يجعل من السهل على القرش الالتفاف بسرعة إلى جانب واحد. تحتوي أسماك قرش النمر ، كما هو الحال مع أسماك القرش الأخرى ، على حفر صغيرة على جانب الجزء العلوي من أجسامها والتي تحتوي على أجهزة استشعار كهربائية تسمى “أمبولة لورنزيني” ، مما يمكنها من اكتشاف حركات العضلات الصغيرة للكائنات الأخرى ، مما يسمح لها بالصيد في الظلام. بالإضافة إلى ذلك ، فإن قرش النمر ، مثل العديد من أسماك القرش الأخرى ، له غطاء يشبه المرآة خلف شبكية العين يسمى “ tapetum lucidum ” والذي يتم كشفه في الظلام ليعكس الضوء الذي سبق أن رآته شبكية العين مرة أخرى للسماح لسمك القرش لرؤية أفضل. يمتلك القرش النمر زعانف طويلة وذيل طويل. تعمل الزعانف الطويلة مثل الأجنحة وتوفر قوة رفع أثناء مناورات القرش عبر الماء ، بينما يوفر الذيل الطويل رشقات نارية من السرعة. يسبح سمكة قرش النمر عادة باستخدام حركات رشيقة لجسمها. يعمل ظهره المرتفع والزعنفة الظهرية كمحور ، مما يسمح له بالدوران بسرعة.

إقرأ أيضا:القرش الليمون : الخصائص والسلوك والنظام الغذائي

أسنان أسماك القرش النمر مسطحة ، مثلثة ، مسننة ومسننة. مثل معظم أسماك القرش ، عندما يفقد القرش النمر أحد أسنانه أو يكسر ، فإنه ينمو سنًا بديلًا. يبدو أن الأسنان المميزة قد تطورت لتكون قادرة على قطع قذائف السلاحف ويمكن لسمك قرش النمر البالغ أن يعض بسهولة من خلال العظام.

حمية القرش النمر

القرش النمر هو صياد انفرادي ، وعادة ما يصطاد في الليل. اسمها مشتق من الخطوط الداكنة أسفل جسمها.

القرش النمر هو حيوان مفترس خطير ، يشتهر بأكل مجموعة واسعة من الفرائس. يتكون نظامها الغذائي المعتاد من الأسماك والفقمات والطيور وأسماك القرش الصغيرة والحبار والسلاحف. تم العثور عليه أحيانًا مع نفايات من صنع الإنسان مثل لوحات الترخيص أو قطع الإطارات القديمة في الجهاز الهضمي. يشتهر قرش النمر بهجماته على السباحين والغواصين وراكبي الأمواج في هاواي وغالبًا ما يشار إليه باسم “لعنة راكبي الأمواج في هاواي” و “سلة مهملات البحر”.

سلوك القرش النمر

يعتبر سلوك أسماك قرش النمر بدويًا في المقام الأول (الانتقال من مكان إلى آخر ، بدلاً من الاستقرار في مكان واحد) ، ومع ذلك ، فإنه يسترشد بتيارات أكثر دفئًا ويظل أقرب إلى خط الاستواء طوال الأشهر الباردة. يميل قرش النمر إلى البقاء في المياه العميقة التي تصطف على طول الشعاب المرجانية ولكنه ينتقل إلى القنوات لملاحقة فريسته في المياه الضحلة.

إقرأ أيضا:سمك السلمون الأطلسي : الموطن والنظام الغذائي والسلوك

من المعروف أن قرش النمر عدواني. إن القدرة على التقاط موجات ضغط منخفضة التردد تمكن القرش من التقدم نحو حيوان بثقة ، حتى في بيئة المياه العكرة حيث يوجد غالبًا. من المعروف أن قرش النمر يدور حول فريسته بل ويدرسها عن طريق حثها على أنفها. عند مهاجمة القرش يلتهم كل فريسته.

يعتبر قرش النمر في المرتبة الثانية بعد القرش الأبيض العظيم من حيث عدد الوفيات البشرية المسجلة ويعتبر ، إلى جانب القرش الأبيض الكبير وسمك القرش الثور وسمك القرش المحيطي الأبيض ، من أكثر أسماك القرش خطورة على البشر. غالبًا ما يطلق عليه بالعامية اسم القرش الآكل للإنسان.

تكاثر القرش النمر

يتم بلوغ النضج الجنسي لقرش النمر في مراحل مختلفة للذكور والإناث. تنضج الذكور عندما يصل طولها إلى 2.26 متر (7 أقدام) إلى 2.9 متر (10 أقدام) بينما تنضج الإناث على ارتفاع 2.5 متر (8 أقدام) إلى 3.25 متر (11 قدمًا). تشير التقديرات إلى أن قرش النمر يمكنه السباحة بسرعة قصوى تبلغ حوالي 32 كيلومترًا في الساعة (20 ميلًا في الساعة) ، مع رشقات نارية قصيرة بسرعات أعلى لا تدوم سوى بضع ثوانٍ.

يتكاثر القرش النمر عن طريق الإخصاب الداخلي. إنه النوع الوحيد في عائلته الذي يولد البيوض ، مثل الثدييات ، يلد صغارًا. يتم التزاوج في نصف الكرة الشمالي بشكل عام بين شهري مارس ومايو ، حيث يولد الصغار في أبريل أو يونيو من العام التالي. في نصف الكرة الجنوبي ، يحدث التزاوج في نوفمبر أو ديسمبر أو أوائل يناير.

تتغذى أسماك القرش الصغيرة الصغيرة داخل جسم الأم لمدة تصل إلى 14 إلى 16 شهرًا ، حيث يمكن للأنثى إنتاج فضلات تتراوح من 10 إلى 80 شابًا. يبلغ طول قرش النمر حديث الولادة من 51 سم (20 بوصة) إلى 76 سم (30 بوصة) ويترك أمه عند الولادة. من غير المعروف كم من الوقت تعيش أسماك قرش النمر ، لكن يُعتقد أنها 20 عامًا.

أسماك القرش والبشر

على الرغم من أن هجمات أسماك القرش على البشر هي ظاهرة نادرة نسبيًا ، إلا أن قرش النمر مسؤول عن نسبة كبيرة من الهجمات المميتة التي تحدث على البشر ويعتبر أحد أكثر أنواع أسماك القرش خطورة. تعيش أسماك قرش النمر في المياه المعتدلة والاستوائية. غالبًا ما توجد في مصبات الأنهار والموانئ ، فضلاً عن المياه الضحلة القريبة من الشاطئ ، حيث من المؤكد أنها تتلامس مع البشر. بسبب طبيعتها الغريبة في التغذية ، من المتوقع أن يهاجم سمكة قرش النمر عادة الإنسان إذا لامسها. من المعروف أن أسماك قرش النمر تسكن في المياه ذات الجريان السطحي ، مثل المكان الذي يدخل فيه النهر إلى المحيط.

أصبحت أسماك القرش النمر مشكلة متكررة في هاواي وتعتبر من أخطر أنواع أسماك القرش في مياه هاواي. يعتبر سكان هاواي الأصليين أرواحًا مقدسة أو أرواح أسلاف ، ولكن بين عامي 1959 و 1976 ، تم اصطياد 4668 من أسماك قرش النمر في محاولة للسيطرة على ما ثبت أنه ضار بصناعة السياحة. على الرغم من هذه الأرقام ، تم اكتشاف انخفاض طفيف في الهجمات على البشر. من غير القانوني إطعام أسماك القرش في هاواي وأي تفاعل معها مثل الغوص في القفص غير محبذ.

حالة حفظ قرش النمر

تصنف أسماك القرش النمر على أنها “قريبة من التهديد”. في حين أن قرش النمر لا يتم صيده تجاريًا بشكل مباشر ، إلا أنه يتم اصطياده بسبب زعانفه ولحمه وكبده وهو مصدر قيم لفيتامين أ المستخدم في إنتاج زيوت الفيتامينات.

السابق
وجدت الدراسة أن الخيول يمكن أن تشم الخوف البشري
التالي
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