أسماك وبرمائيات

سمك السلمون الأطلسي : الموطن والنظام الغذائي والسلوك

Atlantic salmon

سمك السلمون الأطلسي هو سمكة في عائلة Salmonidae. تشمل أقرب أقربائها عددًا من الأنواع المختلفة من التراوت والشار. تشترك هذه الأسماك أيضًا في عائلة Salmonidae مع العديد من أنواع السلمون المختلفة ، والسمك الأبيض ، والرمادي. تابع القراءة للتعرف على سمك السلمون الأطلسي.

وصف سمك السلمون الأطلسي

لا يخضع هذا النوع تمامًا لنفس التغييرات الجذرية أثناء التبويض مثل بعض أنواع السلمون الأخرى. يصبح لون الذكور أكثر حيوية قليلاً ، ولكن ليس بنفس القدر مثل أنواع السلمون في المحيط الهادئ.

تصل هذه الأسماك إلى أحجام كبيرة جدًا. يبلغ طولها حوالي 30 بوصة ويزن حوالي 10 أرطال. أو هكذا. ومع ذلك ، يمكن أن تصل العينات الكبيرة بشكل استثنائي إلى أكبر من ذلك بكثير. يبلغ طول حامل الرقم القياسي العالمي 63 بوصة ويزن أكثر من 100 رطل.!

حقائق مثيرة للاهتمام حول سمك السلمون الأطلسي

هذه الأنواع من سمكة مثيرة للاهتمام ومهمة. تعرف على المزيد حول ما يجعلها فريدة أدناه.

  • Anadromous – مثل معظم أنواع السلمون ، والعديد من أفراد عائلة Salmonidae ، هذه الأسماك لها دورات حياة شاذة. يفقس الصغار في المياه العذبة ، ويهاجرون إلى المياه المالحة لحياتهم البالغة ، ويتكاثرون في مجاري المياه العذبة.
  • غريزة العودة – تمتلك أنواع السلمون المختلفة مستويات مختلفة من غريزة التوجيه. عادة ما تعود هذه الأنواع على وجه الخصوص إلى نفس الجدول أو الجدول بالضبط حيث فقس. الباحثون ليسوا متأكدين تمامًا من كيفية تحقيقهم لهذه الهجرة الدقيقة.
  • Smoltification – عندما تفقس الأسماك الصغيرة في المياه العذبة ، فإنها تبقى هناك لعدة سنوات أثناء نموها. عندما يصل طولها إلى حوالي ست بوصات ، فإنها تخضع لعملية التخصيب. خلال هذه العملية ، يتغير لون الأسماك الصغيرة وتستعد أجسامها للانتقال من المياه العذبة إلى المياه المالحة.
  • غير ساحلي – لا تترك بعض مجموعات هذا النوع موائل المياه العذبة أبدًا. يعيش هؤلاء السكان في مناطق غير ساحلية لا تصلها المياه المالحة.

موطن السلمون الأطلسي

الغالبية العظمى من الأفراد في هذا النوع يظهرون سلوكًا شاذًا. تفقس الأسماك في موائل المياه العذبة ، وتبقى في الجداول والجداول والأنهار ومصبات الأنهار أثناء نموها.

إقرأ أيضا:وصف ومعلومات عن السردين

عندما يصلون إلى أحجام كبيرة بما يكفي ، يهاجرون إلى المحيط ويسكنون الممرات المائية الساحلية. يهاجر بعض السكان مسافات طويلة إلى المحيطات المفتوحة.

توزيع السلمون الأطلسي

يمكنك العثور على هذه الأنواع في شمال المحيط الأطلسي. يمتد مداها من ساحل شمال الولايات المتحدة عبر كندا وحتى جرينلاند. من هناك ، يمتد مداها عبر ساحل أوروبا حتى شمال روسيا. كما أنها تتراوح في موائل المياه العذبة الداخلية أيضًا.

حمية السلمون الأطلسي

كما هو الحال مع الكثير من الأنواع الأخرى في Salmonidae ، يختلف النظام الغذائي لهذه الأسماك بناءً على عمر الفرد وحجمه. تتغذى الزريعة الصغيرة والأسماك الصغيرة بشكل أساسي على اللافقاريات. يتكون نظامهم الغذائي في الغالب من العوالق ويرقات الحشرات وبيض السمك والحشرات والديدان والفرائس المماثلة.

السلمون الأطلسي والتفاعل البشري

استخدم البشر هذا النوع في الصيد الترفيهي والتجاري لسنوات عديدة. لقد دفع الضغط الناجم عن الصيد الجائر تاريخياً تجمعات هذه الأسماك إلى حافة الانقراض.

على الرغم من أن IUCN يدرج هذا النوع على أنه الأقل قلقًا ، إلا أن أعداد هذه الأسماك قد انخفضت إلى ما بعد أدنى نقطة لها في التاريخ المسجل.

إقرأ أيضا:قرش الشعاب المرجانية الكاريبي

أدى النشاط البشري ، مثل بناء السدود ، والصيد الجائر ، وتدمير الموائل ، والتلوث ، إلى تضاؤل ​​أعداد هذه الأنواع. لهذا السبب ، تسرد خدمة الأسماك والحياة البرية الأمريكية هذه الأنواع على أنها مهددة بالانقراض.

تدجين

لم يقم البشر بتدجين هذا النوع بأي شكل من الأشكال.

هل سمك السلمون الأطلسي هو حيوان أليف جيد

لا ، هذا السلمون لا يصنع حيوان أليف جيد. تصل إلى أطوال كبيرة جدًا بحيث لا يمكن وضعها بشكل مريح في حوض أسماك منزلي.

رعاية السلمون الأطلسي

تحتفظ بعض أحواض السمك بأسماكه للمساعدة في تثقيف ضيوفهم حول محنة هذا النوع ومخاطر الصيد الجائر والتلوث. يتم تفريخ السلمون في مجموعاتهم في الأسر ، ولا يؤخذ من المخزونات البرية. يطعمون الأنواع بنظام غذائي من الأسماك والحبار والروبيان واللافقاريات الأخرى.

إقرأ أيضا:معلومات عن سمك الحفش بيلوجا

سلوك سمك السلمون الأطلسي

هذه الأسماك لها سلوك مختلف في مراحل مختلفة من حياتها. تفقس في موائل المياه العذبة ، وتعيش في المدارس حيث تتغذى وتنمو.

بعد بضع سنوات ، تنتقل الأسماك إلى المحيط ، وتقضي عدة سنوات تتغذى في البحر. عندما يحين وقت التبويض ، تعود الأسماك إلى الجدول أو الجدول حيث ولدت ، وتهلك بعد فترة وجيزة من التكاثر.

تكاثر سمك السلمون الأطلسي

بعد الهجرة إلى الجداول التي فقسوا فيها ، أو تيارات الولادة ، تجد إناث الأسماك مكانًا مناسبًا لوضع بيضها. إنها تحفر عشًا ضحلًا ، يُعرف باسم “الأحمر” ، في حصى الجدول. ثم تضع بيضها في العش ، ويخصبها الذكر وتدفنها بالحصى. يكررون هذه العملية عدة مرات.

السابق
معلومات عن ثعبان كوبرا وحقائق مثيرة
التالي
لماذا لا تستطيع الإيمو الطيران؟

312 تعليق

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