أسماك وبرمائيات

معلومات عن سمكة الطبل واهم صفاتها

ترقى سمكة الطبل إلى اسمها الحرفي من خلال إصدار ضوضاء عالية جدًا تساعد في التواصل مع الحيوانات الأخرى.

هذه الأسماك مستوطنة في الغالب في البحار والمحيطات بالمياه المالحة ، ولكن هناك أنواعًا قليلة تعيش حصريًا في أنهار وبحيرات المياه العذبة أيضًا. إنها نوع شائع جدًا من الأسماك للأغراض الترفيهية والتجارية.

3 حقائق مذهلة عن سمكة الطبل!

  • يُطلق على أسماك الطبل أيضًا اسم الطبول أو النكات بسبب الصوت الذي تصدره من مثانات السباحة.
  • تعتبر أسماك الطبل مشهدًا منتظمًا في العديد من أحواض السمك حول العالم.
  • بعض الأنواع لديها باربل مخفوقة ، مثل سمك السلور ، لاستشعار البيئة المحيطة.

الاسم العلمي لسمكة الطبل

و الاسم العلمي للأسماك طبل هو Sciaenidae، التي تستمد من الاسم اللاتيني للأسماك البحر، sciaena. Sciaena هو أيضًا اسم جنس معين داخل Sciaenidae. تنتمي العائلة بأكملها إلى رتبة شعاعي الزعانف تسمى بيرسيفورميس. يضم الفرخ المألوف وسمك الشمس والهامور والنهاش ، وهو أكبر ترتيب من الفقاريات في العالم.

أنواع أسماك الطبل

تضم عائلة أسماك الطبل ما يقرب من 275 (وربما ما يصل إلى 300) نوعًا ، اعتمادًا على من يحسب. هذه مجرد عينة صغيرة منهم:

إقرأ أيضا:معلومات وحقائق مثيرة عن سمك الكريل
  • الطبل الأحمر: المعروف أيضًا باسم قناة باس ، هذا النوع مستوطن في المحيط الأطلسي بين ماساتشوستس وخليج المكسيك. على الرغم من اللون الأحمر والأبيض ، إلا أنه يحتوي أيضًا على علامة سوداء على الذيل.
  • كاليفورنيا كوربينا: المعروف أيضًا باسم طائر طائر الملك في كاليفورنيا أو كينج فيش ، يفتقر هذا النوع في الواقع إلى مثانة السباحة التي يمكنها من خلالها إصدار صوت نعيق.
  • سمكة ضعيفة شائعة: تعرف باسم سكيتيج ، وهي من الأنواع المهددة بالانقراض تعيش في المحيط الأطلسي على طول الساحل الشرقي للولايات المتحدة. تشمل الأنواع الأخرى من الأسماك الضعيفة الأسماك الضعيفة الملساء ، والأسماك الصغيرة الضعيفة ، والأسماك الضعيفة الصغيرة ، وكلها مدرجة على أنها أقل مصدر للقلق .
  • توتوافا: توتوافا أو توتوابا هي أكبر أنواع أسماك الطبل في العالم. تعيش هذه الأنواع النادرة في خليج كاليفورنيا بالقرب من المكسيك.
  • حوض المياه العذبة: هذا هو النوع الوحيد من أسماك الطبل في أمريكا الشمالية (الممتد من خليج هدسون إلى غواتيمالا) الذي يعيش في أنهار أو بحيرات المياه العذبة طوال حياته.

مظهر سمكة الطبل

سمكة الطبل هي سمكة ذات زعانف شعاعية ذات جسم طويل ومستدير ، وأخدود أو شق بين الشعاع والعمود الفقري ، وزعنفتان ظهريتان تعملان على طول الظهر. تمتلك معظم أسماك الطبل فمًا صغيرًا وفكًا وأسنانًا ، لكن بعض الأنواع المختارة تتخصص في أفواه أكبر وفك بارز وأسنان كلاب حادة. الفضة هي اللون السائد ، ولكن العديد من الأنواع الأخرى تأتي في جميع أنواع الأحمر والبني والأسود والأبيض.

إقرأ أيضا:معلومات و حقائق عن سمك أبو سيف

إلى حد بعيد ، فإن أهم ما يميز هذه العائلة هو وجود عضلة كبيرة متصلة بالمثانة السابحة. عندما تحرك هذه العضلة ، يمكن للأسماك تضخيم الصوت بشكل كبير ، مما ينتج عنه صوت صاخب أو صوت طقطقة سميت باسمه. يخدم هذا الصوت الغرض من جذب الأصحاب في موسم التكاثر ، مما يعني أنه في بعض الأنواع تظهر هذه القدرة فقط في الذكور.

في الأنواع الأخرى ، يخدم أيضًا غرضًا ثانويًا كتحذير أو استدعاء موقع على مدار العام بأكمله. يمكن التعرف على كل نوع من خلال الصوت الفريد “لنطقه”. على الرغم من أن هذا يعتبر السمة المميزة لسمك الطبل ، إلا أن بعض الأنواع مثل كوربينا كاليفورنيا المذكورة أعلاه تفتقر إلى القدرة على الإطلاق.

تأتي سمكة الطبل بأحجام مختلفة ولكن لا يزيد طولها عن بضعة أقدام ويصل إلى 60 رطلاً. أكبر الأنواع هي توتوافا العملاقة حقًا التي يبلغ وزنها 225 رطلاً في خليج كاليفورنيا. تميل أسماك المياه المالحة إلى أن تكون أكبر من أسماك المياه العذبة.

توزيع سمكة الطبل والسكان والموئل

أسماك الطبل مستوطنة في كل من مناطق المياه المالحة الاستوائية والمعتدلة حول المحيط الأطلسي والهندي والمحيط الهادئ. أكثر المواقع التفضيلية هي الخلجان ومصبات الأنهار بالقرب من الساحل. تعيش أنواع قليلة في بحيرات وأنهار المياه العذبة إما جزئيًا أو حصريًا على مدار العام. أعداد السكان تختلف حسب الأنواع. يبدو أن أحد الأنواع الأكثر شيوعًا ، وهو الطبل الأحمر ، يتمتع بصحة جيدة ومستقرة على الرغم من شعبيته في الصيد التجاري. معظم الأنواع هي الأقل أهمية بالنسبة إلى دعاة الحفاظ على البيئة ، ولكن ليس كل الأنواع محظوظة جدًا. إن توتوافا المذكورة أعلاه مهددة بالانقراض .

إقرأ أيضا:وصف ومعلومات مثيرة عن التونة ذات الزعانف الزرقاء

سمكة الطبل المفترسات والفريسة

سمكة الطبل هي سمكة تعيش في القاع وتتغذى على القشريات وبلح البحر والحشرات والأسماك الأخرى على طول البحر أو النهر أو قاع البحيرة. يمكن أن تساعد أسنان الكلاب الكبيرة لبعض الأنواع على سحق السطح الخارجي القاسي لسرطان البحر والفرائس الأخرى المقذوفة. وتشمل الحيوانات المفترسة الأسماك الكبيرة، البحر الطيور ، و البشر . تتعرض أسماك الطبل أحيانًا للتهديد بالصيد الجائر والصيد الجائر وفقدان الموائل من السدود وتحويل المياه.

تكاثر أسماك الطبل وعمرها

تختلف العديد من جوانب تكاثر أسماك الطبل ، بما في ذلك موسم التبويض وفترة الحمل ، حسب الأنواع. عادة ما يحدث موسم التكاثر الأكثر شيوعًا خلال أشهر الصيف أو الخريف في المياه الضحلة. يستخدم الذكر نطقه الفريد لجذب رفيقة مناسبة. بعد التزاوج ، يمكن للأنثى أن تضع الآلاف أو أحيانًا ملايين البيض في وقت واحد. ثم يقوم الذكر بتلقيح البويضات بحيوانه المنوي.

تخرج اليرقات الصغيرة من البيض في غضون أيام بقياس لا يزيد عن بضعة ملليمترات في الحجم ، وتتطور لتصبح أفرادًا ناضجين في غضون بضع سنوات من العمر. متوسط ​​العمر المتوقع يختلف حسب الأنواع. يتراوح متوسط ​​عمر أسطوانة المياه العذبة من ستة إلى 13 عامًا ، ولكن يمكن لبعض أنواع المياه المالحة البقاء على قيد الحياة لمدة تصل إلى 50 عامًا في البرية. كما تم توثيق المزيد من الأعمار المتطرفة.

سمكة الطبل في الصيد والطبخ

يعتبر سمك الطبل من الصيد الشائع للأغراض التجارية والترفيهية. يمكن للصيادين الترفيهي العثور على هذه الأسماك حول الأمواج أو الرصيف. يصطاد الصيادون التجاريون أعدادًا كبيرة في المياه المفتوحة بشبكة. وفقًا لإحصاءات الأمم المتحدة ، كان في وقت ما يحتل المرتبة 25 من حيث الأسماك التي يتم صيدها في العالم.

يوصف لحم سمك الطبل أحيانًا بأنه طعم خفيف وحساس وحلو قليلاً. يتم اصطياد أنواع المياه المالحة وتناولها في كثير من الأحيان أكثر من أنواع المياه العذبة. في الواقع ، غالبًا ما يشتكي خبراء الأسماك من أن أسماك المياه العذبة ذات مذاق رديء. يمكن خبز اللحم أو غليه أو سوتيه ، ويتماشى الطعم اللطيف مع عدد من التوابل والأعشاب والخضروات المختلفة.

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