أسماك وبرمائيات

معلومات و حقائق مذهلة عن الحوت الأزرق

الحوت الأزرق هو أكبر حيوان عاش على وجه الأرض. ألسنتهم وحدها يمكن أن تزن مثل الفيل – قلوبهم بقدر ما تزن السيارة.

حقائق مذهلة عن الحوت الأزرق

  • الحوت الأزرق هو أكبر حيوان عاش على وجه الأرض.
  • على الرغم من كونه ضخمًا للغاية ، إلا أن هذا المحيط العملاق يتغذى على بعض أصغر الكائنات البحرية – الجمبري الصغير مثل الحيوانات التي تسمى الكريل. يمكن للحوت الأزرق البالغ أن يستهلك 36000 كجم من الكريل يوميًا.
  • بشكل لا يصدق ، الحيتان الزرقاء هي سباح رشيقون يبحرون في المحيط بسرعة تزيد عن 8 كم / ساعة ، ويمكن أن تصل سرعاتهم إلى أكثر من 30 كم / ساعة
  • يصطادون طعامهم بشكل أساسي عن طريق الغوص ، وينزلون إلى أعماق تصل إلى 500 متر تقريبًا.
  • تحتوي الحيتان الزرقاء على عدد قليل من الحيوانات المفترسة ، ولكن من المعروف أنها تقع ضحية لهجمات أسماك القرش والحيتان القاتلة ، كما يُصاب العديد منهم أو يموتون كل عام بسبب ارتطام السفن الكبيرة.

بيولوجيا الحوت الأزرق

  • يحتوي فم الحوت على صف رائع من الصفائح المهدبة بشعيرات تساعده على تصفية مصدر الغذاء الرئيسي – العوالق من الماء. يوجد ما يشبه شارب من شعيرات طويلة في نهاية كل لوحة لمساعدتها على الإمساك بالفريسة الدقيقة. مع كل جرعة ، يمكن للحوت أن يحمل ما يصل إلى 5000 كجم من الماء والعوالق. بعد أن دفع الحوت الماء إلى الخروج من فمه ، يلعق هذه الشعيرات بلسانه السمين.
  • على الرغم من أن الحوت الأزرق هو صياد في المياه العميقة ، كحيوان ثديي ، يجب أن يأتي إلى سطح البحر للتنفس. عندما تطفو على السطح ، فإنها تخرج الهواء من ثقب في سحابة من البخار المضغوط الذي يرتفع عموديًا فوق الماء حتى 9 أمتار.
  • تتكاثر الإناث مرة واحدة كل ثلاث سنوات وتتراوح فترة الحمل بين 11 و 12 شهرًا. عادة ما يكون للإناث شاب واحد فقط.
  • يظهر الحوت الأزرق الصغير (العجل) يصل وزنه إلى 27000 كجم ويصل طوله إلى 8 أمتار. يتم مساعدة الحيتان المولودة حديثًا على سطح الماء من قبل أمهاتهم وغالبًا ما يتم تشجيعهم (دفعهم) من قبل الإناث الأخريات حتى يتمكنوا من التنفس لأول مرة.
  • يرضع العجل في الماء ، ويشرب أكثر من 600 لتر من الحليب كل يوم ويكتسب حوالي 90 كجم كل يوم في عامه الأول.

سلوك الحوت الأزرق

  • تسبح الحيتان الزرقاء أحيانًا في مجموعات صغيرة ولكنها تسبح عادةً بمفردها أو في أزواج. يُعتقد أنهم يشكلون روابط وثيقة.
  • على الرغم من أننا لا نستطيع سماعها ، إلا أن الحيتان الزرقاء هي واحدة من أعلى الحيوانات على هذا الكوكب ، وتتواصل مع بعضها البعض باستخدام سلسلة من النبضات منخفضة التردد ، والآهات ، والأنين. يُعتقد أنه في الظروف الجيدة ، يمكن للحيتان الزرقاء سماع بعضها البعض عبر مسافات تصل إلى 1600 كيلومتر.

حالة حفظ الحوت الأزرق

دفع الصيد المكثف في القرن العشرين من قبل صيادي الحيتان الباحثين عن زيت الحيتان إلى حافة الانقراض. قتل مئات الآلاف من الحيتان.
منحت اللجنة الدولية لصيد الحيتان لعام 1966 أخيرًا الحماية للحيتان الزرقاء ، على الرغم من أنها تعافت قليلاً منذ ذلك الحين.
تم تصنيف الحيتان الزرقاء حاليًا على أنها مهددة بالانقراض في القائمة الحمراء للاتحاد العالمي للحفاظ على البيئة (IUCN).
تشير التقديرات إلى أن ما بين 10000 و 25000 حوت أزرق فقط تسبح الآن في محيطات العالم.

إقرأ أيضا:وصف ومعلومات عن سمك الكارب (الشبوط)
السابق
تعلم نصائح وحيل سهلة للعناية بالكلب – اعتني بكلبك مثل المحترفين
التالي
سمك السلور: وصف و معلومات مثيرة للاهتمام

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