أسماك وبرمائيات

هل تطير الأسماك الطائرة حقًا؟

Flying fish

يُعرف ما يقرب من 65 نوعًا تعيش في محيطات العالم باسم الأسماك الطائرة. تشتهر هذه الأسماك بزعانفها الشبيهة بالأجنحة وعادات القفز من الماء ، وهي مكونات مهمة للنظم البيئية البحرية. وعلى الرغم من أنها قد تبدو غريبة ، إلا أنها شائعة جدًا. يمكنك غالبًا مراقبتها أثناء ركوب السفن السياحية والقوارب الأخرى في المياه العميقة.

لكن هل هذه الأسماك الرائعة قادرة حقًا على الطيران؟ سنجيب على هذا السؤال ونوضح المزيد عن هذه المخلوقات الرائعة أدناه.

هل تطير الأسماك الطائرة؟

يمكن للأسماك الطائرة القفز من الماء ، لكنها لا تستطيع الطيران في الواقع.

تتطلب الرحلة الحقيقية أن يستخدم الحيوان القوة العضلية للارتفاع فوق الأرض (أو الماء في هذه الحالة). فقط أنواع قليلة من الحيوانات ، الطيور والخفافيش والحشرات في المقام الأول ، أتقنت هذه المهارة.

ومع ذلك ، تعلمت العديد من الحيوانات الأخرى – بما في ذلك الأسماك الطائرة – أن تنزلق. يختلف الطيران الشراعي عن الطيران ، لأنه يعتمد على الزخم الأمامي للحيوان ، بدلاً من الأجنحة القوية ، لإبقائه في الهواء. عندما تقرر سمكة طائرة الإقلاع ، فإنها تندفع نحو السطح ، وتمتد جناحيها ، وتضرب ذيلها بسرعة. في هذه العملية ، تصل الأسماك إلى سرعات عالية جدًا. بمجرد مغادرتهم الماء ، يمكنهم الانزلاق بفضل أجنحتهم الممدودة.

إقرأ أيضا:سمكة غوبي (Guppy) : الوصف والنظام الغذائي والتكاثر

لكن الأسماك الطائرة ليست قادرة على الارتفاع في الهواء بنفس الطريقة التي تستطيع بها الخفافيش والطيور والبق. في الواقع ، سيكون من المنطقي أن نطلق عليها اسم “الأسماك الشراعية” بدلاً من الأسماك الطائرة.

لماذا تقفز الأسماك الطائرة خارج الماء؟

تنزلق الأسماك الطائرة خارج الماء هربًا من الحيوانات المفترسة.

لا تطور الأسماك زعانف شبيهة بالأجنحة وعادات الانزلاق من أجل المتعة (على الرغم من أنها يجب أن تكون بالتأكيد!). لقد طوروا هذه السمات والسلوكيات لمساعدتهم على البقاء على قيد الحياة. على وجه التحديد ، تطورت الأجنحة لمساعدة الأسماك الطائرة على الهروب من الحيوانات المفترسة.

تعيش معظم أنواع الأسماك الطائرة في موائل المياه المفتوحة. خارج المحيط المفتوح ، لا توجد أماكن كثيرة للاختباء فيها الأسماك من الأسماك المفترسة. كل ما يمكن أن تفعله معظم الأنواع هو تشكيل مدارس كبيرة والسباحة بأسرع ما يمكن. عادة ما ينتهي الأمر بالأسماك الفارة بالسباحة تحت سطح الماء مباشرة. لسوء الحظ ، يمكن للحيوانات المفترسة عادةً الإمساك بها بسهولة عند السفر تحت السطح.

لكن الأسماك الطائرة لها خدعة في جعبتها. يمكنهم الهروب من الحيوانات المفترسة ببساطة عن طريق القفز من الماء والانزلاق إلى بر الأمان. يجب أن يكون مفاجئًا جدًا للحيوانات المفترسة أن تشاهد الأسماك التي تطاردها وهي تقفز من الماء وتختفي.

إقرأ أيضا:معلومات وحقائق مثيرة عن أسماك السيامي المقاتلة

ما الأنواع التي تأكل الأسماك الطائرة؟

مجموعة متنوعة من الحيوانات المفترسة في المياه المفتوحة تصطاد الأسماك الطائرة.

مجموعة متنوعة من الحيوانات المفترسة التي تعيش في المحيط المفتوح تأكل الأسماك الطائرة. ومن أهمها الماكريل وسمك أبو سيف وسمك أبو شراع والمارلين. قد يتغذى الحبار أيضًا على الأسماك الطائرة من وقت لآخر ، وكذلك أنواع أسماك القرش الصغيرة.

هذه الحيوانات المفترسة السريعة والرشيقة مناسبة تمامًا لصيد الأسماك الطائرة – على الأقل حتى تغادر الأسماك الطائرة الماء. ومع ذلك ، من المهم ملاحظة أنها لا تستهدف الأسماك الطائرة على وجه التحديد. بدلاً من ذلك ، يحاولون ببساطة صيد أي سمكة صغيرة يمكنهم العثور عليها بالقرب من السطح.

العديد من أنواع الطيور العابرة للمحيطات تستهلك أيضًا الأسماك الطائرة. وهذا يشمل كل شيء من النوارس والبجع إلى فرقاطة الطيور والطيور. يأكل البشر أيضًا الأسماك الطائرة في بعض أجزاء العالم. لكن من الواضح أن البشر يستخدمون القوارب والشباك للقبض عليهم.

إلى أي مدى يمكن أن تنزلق الأسماك الطائرة؟

يمكن للأسماك الطائرة أن تنزلق لمسافات لا تصدق فوق السطح.

إقرأ أيضا:معلومات و حقائق مذهلة عن الحوت الأزرق

على الرغم من عدم قدرتها على الطيران من الناحية الفنية ، يمكن للأسماك الطائرة قطع مسافات شاسعة عندما تقفز من الماء. يبلغ طول الرحلات النموذجية عادة حوالي 150 قدمًا أو نحو ذلك وتستغرق حوالي 20 ثانية. ومع ذلك ، فإن الأسماك الطائرة تسافر أحيانًا لمسافات أبعد في الهواء. وقد لوحظ أن البعض ينزلق ما يقرب من 10 أضعاف هذه المسافة عبر السطح. خلال هذه الرحلات الطويلة ، قد تبقى السمكة في الهواء لأكثر من 40 ثانية.

لا تستطيع الأسماك الطائرة الانزلاق لمثل هذه المسافات إلا بالسفر بسرعة كبيرة. تذكر ، لا يمكنهم الطيران من الناحية الفنية ؛ يمكنهم فقط الانزلاق عبر السطح. ولكن من خلال السباحة بسرعات عالية جدًا ، يمكنهم دفع أنفسهم فوق السطح لمسافات طويلة. في بعض الحالات ، لوحظ وصول الأسماك الطائرة إلى حوالي 40 ميلاً في الساعة عند الانزلاق في الهواء.

تلتصق معظم الأسماك الطائرة بالقرب من سطح الماء عند الانزلاق. بعد كل شيء ، فهي آمنة إلى حد كبير من الحيوانات المفترسة بمجرد خروجها من الماء. ومع ذلك ، يتم حملها أحيانًا بواسطة التحديثات وينتهي بها الأمر بالارتفاع فوق السطح. وقد شوهدت بعض الأسماك الطائرة وهي تنزلق على ارتفاع 20 قدمًا أو أكثر فوق الماء. في بعض الأحيان ، تهبط الأسماك الطائرة بطريق الخطأ على أسطح القوارب التي تتقاطع في مسارها.

ماذا تأكل الأسماك الطائرة؟

تأكل الأسماك الطائرة الأطعمة الشائعة بالقرب من سطح الماء.

معظم أنواع الأسماك الطائرة صغيرة جدًا. قد يصل طول الأفراد الكبيرة جدًا إلى 18 بوصة ، لكن معظمها أصغر بكثير. يبلغ متوسط طول الأسماك الطائرة حوالي 7 أو 8 بوصات.

لأن الأسماك الطائرة صغيرة نسبيًا ، يجب أن تعيش عن طريق تناول المواد الغذائية الصغيرة. تركز معظم الأنواع على العوالق – وهي كائنات بحرية دقيقة توجد بالقرب من سطح المحيط. تعتبر العوالق مصادر غذاء جيدة جدًا للأسماك ، لأنها ليست سريعة ، ولا تمتلك أي آليات دفاعية مهمة أخرى.

هذا يعني أن الأسماك الطائرة يمكنها ببساطة السباحة لأعلى حتى تصل إلى العوالق وتبتلعها. سيتم ضخ المياه التي يتم ابتلاعها في العملية من فتحات أنف السمكة أو الشقوق الخيشومية ، وسيتم ابتلاع العوالق.

من المؤكد أن الأسماك الطائرة حيوانات رائعة ، حتى لو كان اسمها غير صحيح بعض الشيء. إنها تمثل مثالًا رائعًا للحيوانات التي طورت آليات دفاعية خاصة تساعدها على تجنب الحيوانات المفترسة.

ما هي الحيوانات الأخرى التي يمكنك التفكير فيها والتي طورت آليات دفاع غير عادية لتجنب الحيوانات المفترسة؟ دعنا نعرف الأمثلة الخاصة بك في التعليقات أدناه.

السابق
طفيليات الجهاز الهضمي (الديدان الشريطية) في الطيور
التالي
معلومات سلالة الكلاب آريدال ترير

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