أسماك وبرمائيات

وصف ومعلومات مثيرة عن سمكة الأسد

سمكة الأسد هي مجموعة من أنواع الأسماك آكلة اللحوم التي تعود أصولها إلى المحيطين الهندي والهادئ.

في حين أن هناك تنوعًا كبيرًا بين الأنواع المختلفة ، إلا أنها تتميز جميعها بلون الجلد المذهل والأشواك السامة البارزة التي تبرز من أجسامها. السم الذي تنقله لسعتهم هو رادع قوي للحيوانات المفترسة وهو مصدر قلق صحي للبشر. تم إنشاء عدة أنواع من أسماك الأسد قبالة سواحل الولايات المتحدة وأماكن أخرى في المحيط الأطلسي كأنواع غازية تشكل تهديدًا بيئيًا كبيرًا.

3 حقائق سمكة الأسد

  • السم المفرط: يصد سمها معظم الحيوانات المفترسة ويمكن أن تسبب أعراضاً خطيرة لدى البشر ، وخاصة الأطفال الصغار.
  • الصيادون النشطون: تستخدم بعض أسماك الأسد اللامسة على رأسها لجذب الفريسة عن قرب.
  • حملة تناول أسماك الأسد : قامت بعض مجموعات الحفظ بنشاط بتثقيف الجمهور وتشجيع الاستهلاك التجاري لسمك الأسد كوسيلة للسيطرة على الأنواع الغازية.

تصنيف سمكة الأسد والاسم العلمي

تشتهر سمكة الأسد أيضًا بالعديد من الأسماء الأخرى ، بما في ذلك سمك الزرد وسمك اللذيذ. وهي مقسمة إلى جنسين: Pterois و Dendrochirus . يُعتقد أن الاسم العلمي لـ Pterois مشتق من الكلمة اليونانية “pteron” ، والتي تعني الريش أو الجناح. الاسم العلمي لـ Dendrochirus له أيضًا أصول يونانية ويمكن ترجمته بشكل فضفاض على أنه “له علامات تشبه الأشجار”. ينتمي كلا جنس سمكة الأسد إلى الفصيلة التصنيفية Scorpaenidae في فئة Actinopterygii .

إقرأ أيضا:وصف ومعلومات عن السردين

أسماء أخرى لسمكة الأسد

الأنواع الاثني عشر في جنس Pterois هي الأنواع التي يتم تصنيفها تقليديًا على أنها سمكة الأسد ، بينما تعتبر الأنواع الستة في Dendrochirus سمكة الأسد القزم. أسماك الأسد لها العديد من الأسماء العامية أو الشائعة ، بما في ذلك: سمكة النار ، وسمك الديك الرومي ، وسمك القد الفراشي ، وسمك الزرد ، والسمك اللذيذ. عادةً ما يتم استخدام العديد من هذه الأسماء لوصف نوع معين. على سبيل المثال ، تُعرف الأنواع P. miles باسم الشيطان الناري ، P. volitans هي سمكة الأسد الحمراء ، وتسمى D. biocellatus باسم twospot turkeyfish.

أنواع أسماك الأسد

مع وجود حوالي 18 نوعًا عبر جنسين ، هناك الكثير من التنوع في الألوان والحجم بين أسماك الأسد. ومع ذلك ، فإن جميعهم يتتبعون أصولهم في منطقة المحيطين الهندي والهادئ ويعتبرون غازية في مكان آخر. يتبع كلا النوعين الكلاسيكي والأقزم مجموعة متنوعة من الفرائس في المياه الساحلية الضحلة نسبيًا.

  • سمك الأسد الأحمر: أحد النوعين المسؤولين عن غزو المحيط الأطلسي ومن أكثر أنواع سمك الأسد دراسة.
  • سمكة هاواي الديك الرومي: سمكة تعيش في الكهوف ذات نطاق محلي صغير يقتصر على المياه الساحلية حول هاواي.
  • سمكة النار المقطعة: نوع قزم يوجد على طول المناطق الساحلية لبحر الصين الجنوبي ، بما في ذلك شبه جزيرة بوسو واليابان.
  • سمكة أسد البحر الأحمر: نوع يتواجد فقط حول شبه الجزيرة العربية ، وخاصة في جدة والمملكة العربية السعودية والبحر الأحمر.

مظهرسمكة الأسد

مع مجموعات مثيرة للاهتمام من الألوان الرائعة والأنماط الشيقة ، تتمتع أسماك الأسد بالتأكيد بجماليات فريدة. يمنحهم تلوينهم جنبًا إلى جنب مع العديد من الأشواك عرضًا مرئيًا مذهلاً وهو السبب الرئيسي وراء البحث عنهم كأنواع أحواض السمك. تعمل هذه الألوان في بيئتها الطبيعية على تحذير الحيوانات المفترسة المحتملة من أن السمكة لها سم خطير وأنها ليست هدفًا مرغوبًا فيه.

إقرأ أيضا:معلومات عن سمكة الذئب الانقليس

جميع أسماك الأسد مجهزة بمجموعة من الأشواك على طول الجزء العلوي من أجسامها ومعظمها يحتوي على أشواك بارزة من جوانبها أو من الخلف أيضًا. تحتوي العديد من الأنواع أيضًا على هوائيات صيد تمتد من جبهتها تعمل على جذب الفريسة عن قرب قبل أن تؤكل. بشكل عام ، يكون لسمكة الأسد شكل مضغوط مع جسم سميك وذيل أقصر. يمكن أن يصل طول الأسماك البالغة إلى 18 بوصة ، بينما يصل طول بعض أنواع الأقزام إلى حوالي 6 بوصات فقط.

توزيع سمكة الأسد ، والسكان ، والموئل

جميع أنواع أسماك الأسد موطنها بيئات المياه المالحة وتفضل أن تعيش في المياه الضحلة التي يقل عمقها عن 500 قدم. بعض الأنواع باقية حول السواحل الصخرية أو تبحث عن ملاذ في البحيرات. يبحث آخرون عن عادات محمية مثل الشعاب المرجانية والحطام المغمور التي توفر أرض صيد غنية لإشباع شهيتهم الشرهة.

تتمتع هذه الأسماك بنطاق جغرافي طبيعي واسع ، على الرغم من أن الأنواع الفردية تقتصر عادةً على المياه الإقليمية. وتعد هذه المياه الدافئة الاستوائية بين أستراليا و الصين غنية التنوع والسكان. ومع ذلك ، تجد أنواع مختلفة من أسماك الأسد أصلها عبر معظم ساحل المحيطين الهندي والهادئ الممتد من اليابان إلى مدغشقر .

تعتبر أسماك الأسد من التهديدات الغازية الكبيرة للبحر الأبيض المتوسط ​​والبحر الكاريبي وجميع أنحاء المحيط الأطلسي. بدأ الغواصون وعلماء البيئة في الإبلاغ عن مشاهد عرضية قبالة سواحل الولايات المتحدة في التسعينيات. في غضون بضعة عقود ، انفجرت أعداد السكان بسبب معدلات التكاثر السريعة وآليات الدفاع الفعالة. إجمالي أعداد السكان غير معروف ، ولكن بشكل عام تعتبر الأقل أهمية فيما يتعلق بالحفظ.

إقرأ أيضا:معلومات وحقائق مثيرة عن سمك الكريل

إجمالي أعداد أسماك الأسد غير معروف ، لكن مقاومتها للحيوانات المفترسة ومعدل التكاثر المذهل يعني أنها معرضة لخطر منخفض من التعرض للخطر. في الواقع ، قدرتها على زيادة أعدادها بسرعة في بيئات جديدة هي سبب للقلق للعديد من الأنواع المهددة بالانقراض حول المحيط الأطلسي بأكمله.

المفترسات والفريسة سمكة الأسد

أسماك الأسد هي أكلة شرهة وتفترس جميع أنواع الكائنات البحرية. هم عادة من الحيوانات المفترسة التي نصبها الكمائن والتي تلعب دورًا نشطًا في إثارة الدهشة والالتفاف على الفريسة. تدفع بعض الأنواع أيضًا التيارات المائية نحو الفريسة لإرباكها ومنع الهروب. لديهم أيضًا عدد قليل من الحيوانات المفترسة الطبيعية بسبب أشواكها السامة ، على الرغم من وجود عدد قليل من الأنواع آكلة اللحوم التي يمكن أن تأكلها.

المفترسات سمكة الأسد

يعد البشر في الواقع أحد الأنواع القليلة التي تصطاد وتأكل سمكة الأسد بنجاح ، على الرغم من أنها لا تخلو من مخاطرها. تشمل الحيوانات المفترسة البحرية الطبيعية ثعابين الموراي وسمك القرنية الزرقاء وأنواع عديدة من الهامور. قد تتمكن أنواع أخرى من الحيوانات المفترسة في المحيط ، مثل أسماك القرش وديدان Bobbit ، من أكل سمكة الأسد.

ماذا تأكل سمكة الأسد؟

هذه الحيوانات آكلة اللحوم ليست من الصعب إرضاءها بشأن ما تأكله. فهي قادرة على القضاء على السكان المحليين لأنواع الأسماك الصغيرة وكذلك اللافقاريات والرخويات المختلفة. تعتبر أسماك الكريول وسمك أصفر الذيل والروبيان من بين العديد من العناصر الممكنة في قائمة الطعام الخاصة بهم.

تكاثر سمكة الأسد وعمرها

تتمتع أسماك الأسد بقدرات إنجابية مذهلة ، والتي تساهم فقط في تهديدها البيئي كأنواع غازية. على الرغم من أنه يمكنهم العيش لمدة تصل إلى 20 عامًا ، إلا أنهم يصلون عادةً إلى مرحلة النضج الجنسي في أقل من عام واحد. إنهم قادرون على التكاثر كل بضعة أيام ويستمرون في وضع البيض طوال العام بأكمله. تم الإبلاغ عن أن بعض الإناث تطلق أكثر من مليوني بيضة في عام واحد.

سمكة الأسد في الصيد والطبخ

في حين أن سمكة الأسد ليس لها تاريخ قوي كعنصر قائمة للبشر ، فقد تغير هذا في السنوات الأخيرة. نظرًا لوجود عدد قليل من الحيوانات المفترسة الطبيعية للأسماك ، فقد دعا دعاة الحفاظ على البيئة والمنظمات الأخرى في جميع أنحاء الأمريكتين إلى استهلاك الأسماك كوسيلة للسيطرة على السكان. بينما يتعين على الصيادين توخي الحذر بشأن لسعة العمود الفقري ، فإن السم لا يؤثر على سلامة أو طعم اللحم عند تحضيره بشكل صحيح.

يعتبر لحم السمك جيدًا ومناسبًا للاستهلاك المنتظم. يمكن وصف نكهتها بأنها رقيقة وخفيفة وذات ملمس رطب وطري. كما تم مقارنة طعمه بطعم سرطان البحر والروبيان. غالبًا ما يتضمن التحضير خبز اللحم بالبقسماط لمنعه من التفتت ، على الرغم من وجود الكثير من طرق الطهي الفعالة. ومع ذلك ، يجب أن يتضمن التحضير دائمًا إزالة دقيقة للعمود الفقري واستخدام حرارة كافية لتحييد أي سموم.

السابق
حقائق مذهلة حول مانتا راي (Manta Ray)
التالي
معلومات وحقائق مثيرة عن قرش ميغالودون (Megalodon)

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