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افعى البايثون البورميه : الخصائص والسلوك والنظام الغذائي

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تعد الثعابين البورمية من أطول وأثقل أنواع الثعابين في العالم. يبلغ متوسط ​​طولها 12 قدمًا وطولها الأقصى 23 قدمًا ، فهذه بعض الثعابين الهائلة !

هذه الزواحف موطنها جنوب وجنوب شرق آسيا ، ولكن تم إدخالها كأنواع غازية في فلوريدا. ولا سيما في جنوب فلوريدا، أصبحت هذه الأنواع الغازية خطرا كبيرا على السكان الحيوان الأصلي، بما في ذلك الثعالب و الأرانب ، الراكون والغزلان و التماسيح ، القيوط ، والفهود ولاية فلوريدا. تابع القراءة للتعرف على الثعبان البورمي .

وصف افعى البايثون البورميه

الثعابين البورمية لها قشور داكنة اللون مع بقع بنية وحدود أفتح عبر أجسامها بالكامل. تتشابه الأنماط مع تلك الموجودة على الزرافات . في البرية لا يزيد طولها عادة عن 12 قدمًا ، والحيوانات الفردية التي يزيد طولها عن 13 قدمًا غير شائعة جدًا. أطول طول تم التحقق منه كان ثعبانًا أسيرًا ، والذي نما إلى 18 قدمًا .10 بوصات ، ولكن كانت هناك تقارير عن ثعابين أطول.

حقائق مثيرة للاهتمام حول افعى البايثون البورميه

هذه الثعابين الضخمة هي مفترسات ماهرة ، وهذا يؤدي إلى مشاكل للأنواع المحلية في نطاقها الغازي. تابع القراءة لمعرفة المزيد عن هذه المخلوقات الهائلة.

  • كارثة طبيعية – بدأ غزو هذه الثعابين في فلوريدا نتيجة لتجارة الحيوانات الأليفة. يمكن إرجاع التأسيس الأصلي للمجموعات الغازية إلى إعصار أندرو في عام 1992 ، عندما تم تدمير منشأة تكاثر الثعابين . الهاربون هم أسلاف ما يقدر بنحو 100000 ثعبان يغزون حاليًا إيفرجليدز.
  • Pet Peeve – مصدر آخر للثعابين الغازية هو الحيوانات الأليفة المنزلية. يتم شراء هذه الثعابين وهي صغيرة ، وعندما يدرك المالك أنها لا تستطيع الاهتمام برفيقها الذي ينمو بسرعة ، فإنها تطلقها في البرية. لسوء الحظ ، نجت هذه الثعابين وازدهرت في موائل فلوريدا وهي تتكاثر وتنتشر.
  • لا يوجد سم هنا – هذه الثعابين ليست من الأنواع السامة. بدلاً من ذلك ، يستخدمون أسنانًا متعددة ، مما يسمح لهم بالإمساك بفرائسهم جيدًا. بعد أن يمسكوا وجبتهم ، يلتفون حولها ويضغطون! وهذا ما يسمى باستخدام التضييق لقتل الفريسة.
  • الحب الأمومي – على عكس العديد من الزواحف الأخرى ، تحضن هذه الثعابين بيضها باستخدام أجسادها. في حين أن معظم الزواحف تدفن بيضها ، وتترك الشمس والنباتات تقوم بحضانتهم ، تستخدم الثعابين عضلاتها. في الواقع ، ستنفض الإناث عضلاتها بسرعة لزيادة درجة الحرارة ، على غرار الطريقة التي نرتعد بها.

موطن افعى البايثون البورميه

الثعابين البورمية ليست ثعابين مائية ، لكنها سباح جيد جدًا. موائلهم المفضلة على مقربة من مصادر المياه الدائمة. هذا التفضيل للموائل المائية يجعلها مناسبة تمامًا لبيئة فلوريدا.

إقرأ أيضا:معلومات وحقائق عن الثعبان الأسود ذو بطن أحمر

يمكن العثور عليها بشكل شائع في المستنقعات والأراضي الرطبة والأراضي العشبية والمستنقعات والأراضي الحرجية والعبث والتلال الصخرية ووديان الأنهار. تم العثور على هذه الأنواع من الموائل في كل من نطاقها الأصلي في آسيا ، ونطاقها الغازي في فلوريدا.

توزيع افعى البايثون البورميه

توجد هذه الزواحف في مداها الطبيعي في جنوب وجنوب شرق آسيا. هم مواطنون في شرق الهند ، سومباوا ، نيبال ، بالي ، بوتان ، سولاويزي ، بنغلاديش ، إندونيسيا ، ميانمار ، هونغ كونغ ، تايلاند ، الصين ، لاوس ، ماليزيا ، كمبوديا ، وفيتنام.

في نطاقها الغازي في فلوريدا ، تم العثور عليها بشكل متكرر في جنوب فلوريدا ، لا سيما في فلوريدا إيفرجليدز. تم العثور على السكان أيضًا في شمال فلوريدا وفلوريدا.

حمية افعى البايثون البورميه

سوف تأكل هذه الزواحف أي حيوانات يمكن أن تغرق أسنانها فيها. إنها حيوانات آكلة للحوم ، مما يعني أنها تتغذى على اللحوم وتقريباً لا توجد أي مادة نباتية. ليس من غير المألوف العثور على الثعابين بالقرب من سكن الإنسان لمجرد زيادة الحشرات (وبالتالي الفرائس).

تعتمد أنواع الفرائس بشكل كبير على حجمها. سوف تأكل الثعابين الصغيرة الجرذان والفئران والأرانب والطيور وغيرها من الفرائس ذات الحجم المناسب. سيتغذى الأفراد الأكبر حجمًا على الخنازير والماعز والغزلان وحتى التمساح .

إقرأ أيضا:معلومات مثيرة عن ثعبان قوس قزح

افعى البايثون البورميه والتفاعل البشري

في نطاقها البري ، تعتبر هذه المخلوقات في الواقع معرضة للخطر من قبل القائمة الحمراء للاتحاد الدولي لحفظ الطبيعة. يقلل تدمير الموائل من أعداد السكان ، لكن الاستيلاء غير القانوني على تجارة الحيوانات الأليفة أكثر ضررًا. في العديد من الأماكن في الولايات المتحدة ، من غير القانوني امتلاك هذا النوع من الثعابين كحيوان أليف. كما يتم أسر هذه الزواحف وقتلها من أجل لحومها وجلودها التي تستخدم في سوق الجلود.

تدجين

على الرغم من حدوث مجموعات تكاثر في الأسر والتكاثر الانتقائي في تجارة الحيوانات الأليفة ، إلا أن هذا النوع لم يخضع للتغيير لفترة كافية ليتم اعتباره مستأنسًا.

هل افعى البايثون البورميه حيوان أليف جيد

بالنسبة للجزء الأكبر ، هذه الثعابين لا تصنع حيوانات أليفة جيدة. فقط خبير متمرس مع جميع التصاريح والتراخيص الصحيحة يمكنه أو يجب أن يمتلك هذا النوع بشكل قانوني. يمكن أن تنمو بشكل كبير جدًا ، وعلى الرغم من أنها ليست خطيرة للغاية على البشر ، إلا أن إيواء مثل هذا الثعبان الطويل قد يكون صعبًا.

رعاية افعى البايثون البورميه

في بيئة علم الحيوان ، يجب تزويد هذه الزواحف الكبيرة بمساحة سكن مناسبة. تتميز موائلها الطبيعية برطوبة عالية جدًا ، وتتناسب حاوياتها كثيرًا مع هذه البيئة حتى يظل الحيوان بصحة جيدة.

إقرأ أيضا:معلومات وحقائق عن السلحفاة ذات العنق الأفعى

يجب أن تظل درجة الحرارة في موطنهم في منتصف الثمانينيات فهرنهايت ، ويجب تزويدهم بمصدر للضوء ووسادة حرارية. من المهم أيضًا الحفاظ على تدرج درجة الحرارة داخل العلبة بحيث يكون لدى الثعابين خيار اختيار درجة الحرارة المثلى بأنفسهم. ربما يكون أهم جانب في العلبة هو التأكد من أنها آمنة ، لضمان عدم تمكن الثعبان من الهروب.

سلوك افعى البايثون البورميه

بالنسبة للجزء الأكبر ، هذه الزواحف مخلوقات منفردة. سوف يتفاعلون مع بعضهم البعض فقط من أجل التكاثر. يحدث معظم صيدهم في الليل ، ويستمتعون بأشعة الشمس أثناء النهار.

بصفتهم حيوانات مفترسة في الكمائن ، فإنهم يقضون معظم وقتهم في الاختباء في الأدغال في انتظار الفريسة لهم. عندما تنخفض درجات الحرارة بشدة في الشتاء ، فإنهم سيقللون بشكل كبير من مستوى نشاطهم ويذهبون إلى حالة سبات كاذبة تسمى التخمين .

تكاثر افعى البايثون البورميه

بعد التكاثر ، تضع الإناث ما بين 12 – 36 بيضة ، عادة في مارس أو أبريل. سوف تحضن بيضها باستخدام جسدها. يمكن أن يؤدي ارتعاش عضلاتها إلى زيادة درجة الحرارة المحيطة حول البيض بشكل فعال. بعد أن تفقس ، ستترك الثعابين الصغيرة لتدافع عن نفسها. عادة ما تكون أوقات الحضانة حوالي 60 يومًا ، ولكن يمكن أن تختلف حسب الفرد.

السابق
معلومات مثيرة عن الدلفين الأسود
التالي
سلالة كلاب بيوسرون : الشخصية ، والصحة ، والنظام الغذائي

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