أسماك وبرمائيات

القرش الليمون : الخصائص والسلوك والنظام الغذائي

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أسماك القرش الليموني هي من الأنواع المتوسطة / الكبيرة الحجم التي تنمو بطول 11 قدمًا كحد أقصى. يعيش السكان في المقام الأول في المياه الدافئة الضحلة للمحيط الأطلسي وشرق المحيط الهادئ.

يأتي اسمها من لونها المصفر ، على الرغم من أنها ليست صفراء بشكل خاص. إحدى السمات المميزة الرئيسية لهذا النوع هي الزعانف الظهرية المزدوجة ، والثاني منها تقريبًا بحجم الأول. تابع القراءة للتعرف على سمك القرش الليموني .

وصف القرش الليمون

ن طولها أكثر من 11 قدمًا. تزن الغالبية العظمى من الحيوانات حوالي 200 رطل. في المتوسط ​​، ولكن يمكن للأفراد الوصول إلى أوزان تصل إلى 405 أرطال. تتمتع أسماك القرش هذه بأجسام طويلة ونحيلة ذات شكل مسطح قليلاً. عيونهم صغيرة نسبيًا ، وتغطي مسام الاستقبال الكهربائي أنوفهم.

حقائق مثيرة للاهتمام حول القرش الليمون

في حين أن هذه الأنواع من أسماك القرش قد تبدو مخيفة ، إلا أنها في الواقع مخلوقات مثيرة للاهتمام. تعرف على المزيد حول السمات والتكيفات المختلفة لأسماك قرش الليمون أدناه.

  • أصفر الليمون – على عكس الليمون الحقيقي ، فإن أسماك قرش الليمون ليست ذات ألوان زاهية تمامًا. وهي ذات لون أصفر مائل إلى البني ، مما يعطيها مظهرًا موحلًا. هذا يجعلها ملونة بشكل مثالي لتتناسب مع القاع الرملي للبيئات التي يصطادون فيها. اللون الأصفر هو في الواقع تمويه مثالي .
  • المفلطحة – على الرغم من شكلها ليست واردة حتى بالارض بشكل كبير كما يقول، اللادغة ، وأسماك القرش الليمون ليست ما يقرب من طوربيد على شكل معظم أنواع سمك القرش. هذا لأنهم يسكنون القاع ، وليس أسماك القرش السطحية. إنهم يتغذون على طول قاع المحيط ، في قيعان رملية في الغالب ، بحثًا عن الطعام. أي حيوان يقضي وقتًا على طول القاع يستفيد من الحصول على شكل مسطح أكثر.
  • مروع! – مثل معظم أسماك القرش، بما في ذلك أسماك القرش الأبيض الكبير و أسماك القرش ممرضة ، هذا النوع تخصصت المسام على خطم لها. تستخدم أسماك القرش هذه المسام ، المسماة “أمبولة لورنزيني” ، لاكتشاف التيارات الكهربائية التي تنشأ عندما تتحرك الحيوانات. وهذا يتيح لهم “رؤية” فرائسهم في المياه الملبدة بالغيوم أو تحت الرمال.
  • ليست حامضة للغاية – أسماك القرش الليمون هي في الواقع مخلوقات سهلة الانقياد بشكل مدهش. على الرغم من حقيقة أنهم يعيشون في المياه الضحلة ، ويصل طولهم إلى 11 قدمًا ، إلا أنهم ليسوا مسؤولين عن الكثير من لدغات أسماك القرش. عندما يعضون ، فذلك لأنهم أخطأوا في اعتبار الإنسان طعامًا (مثل محاولة الاستيلاء على سمكة قد اصطادها غواص) ، أو شيء ما أذهل سمكة القرش. لم يكن هناك أي هجوم مميت من سمكة قرش الليمون في تاريخ البشرية.

موطن القرش الليمون

تتكيف هذه الأنواع تمامًا مع الحياة في المياه الضحلة ، وتفضل العيش بالقرب من القاع. كما أنهم يعيشون في موائل ذات أرضيات بحرية رملية أو صخرية ، مما يسمح لهم بتمويه أفضل .

إقرأ أيضا:معلومات وحقائق عن نجم البحر

يتجنب معظم الأفراد الموائل ذات الغطاء النباتي الكثيف ، مثل أحواض الأعشاب البحرية ، لأنهم لا يستطيعون العثور على الفريسة بسهولة. واحدة من موائلهم المفضلة هي مصبات الأنهار المنغروف. عادة ما تختبئ الأسماك الصغيرة في غابات المانغروف ، وهذا يوفر لأسماك القرش الليموني مجموعة متنوعة من مصادر الفرائس.

توزيع القرش الليمون

يعد توزيع هذا النوع محدودًا أكثر من بعض أنواع أسماك القرش الأخرى ، مثل أسماك القرش النمر وأسماك القرش ماكو . إنها تزدهر فقط في المياه الضحلة القريبة من الساحل ، وتزدهر بشكل أفضل في البحار الدافئة.

في المحيط الأطلسي ، تتراوح من شمال الولايات المتحدة إلى البرازيل ، بما في ذلك خليج المكسيك ، وعلى طول ساحل غرب إفريقيا. في المحيط الهادئ يعيشون فقط على طول ساحل باجا كاليفورنيا نزولاً إلى الإكوادور.

حمية القرش الليمون

يتكون النظام الغذائي لسمك القرش بشكل أساسي من الأسماك ، على الرغم من أنها ستتغذى على القشريات وغيرها من الكائنات البحرية الصغيرة. سوف يأكلون أيضًا أسماك القرش الصغيرة بالليمون ، ويتغذون على أسماك القرش الصغيرة من أي نوع صغير بما يكفي لتناول الطعام.

بدلاً من التغذية العشوائية ، ستستهدف هذه الأنواع أنواعًا معينة من الأسماك. سوف يفترسون الأسماك الصغيرة في المشاتل ، أو يستهدفون الأنواع البطيئة الحركة التي يسهل اصطيادها.

إقرأ أيضا:وصف ومعلومات عن السمكة المنتفخة

القرش الليمون والتفاعل البشري

هذه الأنواع غير ضارة تقريبًا للإنسان. تحدث لدغات قليلة جدًا ، وتلك التي تحدث لا تكون قاتلة أبدًا. يسهل الاحتفاظ بها في أحواض مائية ، مما يسمح للباحثين بدراستها في الخزانات وفي البرية. هذا يعني أنها واحدة من أكثر أسماك القرش التي تم بحثها بدقة في العالم.

للأسف ، يخبرنا هذا البحث أن البشر يعرضونهم للخطر. مجموعات سكانية محددة ، والسكان ككل ، في تناقص. مثل العديد من أنواع أسماك القرش الأخرى ، يصطادها البشر بحثًا عن زعانفهم ولحومهم وجلدهم. يؤدي هذا الصيد ، جنبًا إلى جنب مع تدمير الموائل ، إلى انخفاض أعداد أسماك القرش عبر نطاقها. وبسبب هذا ، فإن IUCN يسرد أسماك القرش الليمون على أنها قريبة من التهديد .

تدجين

لم يقم البشر بتدجين أسماك قرش الليمون بأي شكل من الأشكال.

هل يصنع القرش الليمون حيوانًا أليفًا جيدًا

لا ، أسماك قرش الليمون لا تصنع حيوانات أليفة جيدة. في حين أنها يمكن أن تنجح في أحواض السمك ، فإن هذا القرش ينمو بشكل كبير جدًا. هذا يعني أنك ستحتاج إلى خزان كبير بشكل لا يصدق لإيوائهم ، الأمر الذي سيكون مكلفًا للغاية ويستغرق وقتًا طويلاً بالنسبة للحيوانات الأليفة المنزلية.

إقرأ أيضا:الحيتان الصائبة : الموطن والنظام الغذائي والسلوك

العناية بالليمون القرش

يمكن أن يكون هذا النوع ناجحًا تمامًا في حدائق الحيوان وحدائق الأحياء المائية ، مما يمنح العلماء الكثير من الفرص لإجراء بحث شامل عن سلوكهم وتشريحهم وتكاثرهم. كما هو الحال مع أي سمكة قرش كبيرة ، فإنها تتطلب مساحة كبيرة للسباحة والتواصل الاجتماعي.

النظام الغذائي للأسماك والقشريات أو الحبار العرضي يناسب هذا النوع تمامًا ، حيث يسهل تكرار نظامهم الغذائي البري. نظرًا لأنهم يميلون إلى تناول نفس أنواع الأسماك ، فإنهم لا يتطلبون أيضًا تنوعًا كبيرًا في نظامهم الغذائي.

سلوك القرش الليمون

تعد أسماك القرش الليموني واحدة من حفنة من الأنواع الاجتماعية وتتجمع في مجموعات. وتشمل بعض الأنواع الاجتماعية الأخرى أسماك القرش الزرقاء ، وبعض الأنواع من كلب البحر ، و القرش المطرقة . عادة ما يفصلون مجموعاتهم الاجتماعية حسب الحجم ، عادة لتجنب أسماك القرش الصغيرة من أن تصبح عشاء!

يمتد هذا السلوك الاجتماعي أيضًا إلى التغذية. في بعض الأحيان ، تصطاد أسماك القرش كمجموعة ، ومن الشائع جدًا أن تنخرط في تغذية السلوك الجنوني.

تكاثر القرش الليمون

يحدث التكاثر والولادة في موائل الحضانة الضحلة ، وتعتبر أشجار المانغروف على وجه الخصوص مهمة جدًا لهذا النوع. سيعود العديد من الأفراد إلى نفس مناطق التكاثر عامًا بعد عام. هذه الأنواع ولود ، مما يعني أنها تلد حية ، تمامًا مثل الثدييات.

فترة حملهم طويلة جدًا ، وعادة ما تكون حوالي عام أو نحو ذلك. تلد الإناث في أي مكان من 4 إلى 17 شابًا ، يُطلق عليهم اسم “الجراء”. بعد الولادة ، تصبح الجراء مستقلة تمامًا ، وستبقى في مشاتلها لبضع سنوات قبل أن تغامر في المياه العميقة. لن يتمكنوا من إعادة إنتاج أنفسهم حتى يبلغوا من العمر 12 إلى 16 عامًا.

السابق
ليوبارد أبو بريص : الخصائص والسلوك والنظام الغذائي
التالي
ما هي الاختلافات بين اللاما والألبكة ؟

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