أسماك وبرمائيات

حقائق ومعلومات عن سمكة القرص

يمكن أن تغير سمكة القرص ألوانها قليلاً بناءً على العوامل الشخصية والبيئية .

القرص هو جنس من الأسماك الاستوائية ذات الألوان الزاهية (وعضو في عائلة البلطي ) التي تعيش في الممرات المائية الطويلة المتعرجة لحوض الأمازون. نظرًا لألوانها الزاهية وعلاماتها المعقدة ، يعد القرص أحد أكثر أنواع أسماك الزينة الاستوائية شيوعًا في العالم. لقد خضع لتربية انتقائية في الأسر لجميع أنواع العلامات والأنماط الغريبة ، والتي لا يوجد الكثير منها حتى في البرية.

حقائق لا تصدق عن الأسماك القرص!

  • تفضل هذه الأسماك التجمع في مجموعات كبيرة مع عشرات الأعضاء للحماية والتغذية.
  • يبدو أن سمكة القرص تستمد ألوانها الزاهية من مجموعات الصبغات الموجودة في خلايا جلدها.
  • الاسم البديل للأسماك هو سمكة البومبادور. سميت على اسم مدام دي بومبادور ، عشيقة الملك لويس الخامس عشر من فرنسا ، بومبادور هي تصفيفة شعر شهيرة يتم فيها مسح كمية كبيرة من الشعر على الجبهة. بسبب ألوانه الزاهية ، حصل القرص أيضًا على لقب ملك الأكواريوم.

تصنيف سمكة القرص والاسم العلمي

الاسم العلمي لسمكة القرص هو Symphysodon. قد يكون هذا الاسم مزيجًا من الكلمات اليونانية symphysis ، والتي تعني نمت معًا ، و odous ، أي الأسنان. تنتمي إلى عائلة البلطي ، وهي واحدة من أكثر عائلات الفقاريات تنوعًا في العالم.

إقرأ أيضا:دلفين ريسو : الموطن والنظام الغذائي والسلوك

أنواع أسماك القرص

اختلف علماء التصنيف ذات مرة حول عدد الأنواع التي جابت البرية ، ولكن يبدو أن دراسة وراثية لرمي القرص تؤكد وجود ثلاثة أنواع مختلفة. يبدو أن القرص الأزرق والقرص الأحمر ، المذكورين أدناه ، هما الأكثر ارتباطًا. إنهم قادرون على إنتاج أنواع هجينة قابلة للحياة معًا. تم إنتاج عدة أنواع أخرى من خلال التربية الانتقائية في الأسر.

  • القرص الأزرق : يعيش أسفل نهر ريو بوروس في حوض الأمازون الشرقي ، يحتوي اللون الأزرق (أو بدلاً من ذلك ، قرص الحاجب) على مزيج من الألوان الزرقاء والبنية في جميع أنحاء جسمه.
  • القرص الأخضر : موطنه الأصلي أيضًا منطقة Purus أسفل النهر في حوض الأمازون الغربي ، يتميز القرص الأخضر بجسم أصفر-أخضر مع بعض اللمسات الزرقاء حول الأطراف وبعض الخطوط السوداء على جسمه.
  • مناقشة حمراء : موطنها ريو نيغرو والمناطق المحيطة بها ، القرص الأحمر له جسم أحمر برتقالي لامع ، يكمله أحيانًا أنماط زرقاء وخضراء وخطوط سوداء. يُعرف هذا النوع أيضًا باسم Heckel discus.

مظهر سمكة القرص

لسبب وجيه ، اكتسبت هذه السمكة اسم القرص. له جسم مستدير مسطح نسبيًا مع زعانف كبيرة وبارزة على الظهر والحوض. كما ذكرنا سابقًا ، تم تصنيف القرص وفقًا لألوان الجسم الثلاثة الرئيسية (الأزرق والأحمر والأخضر) ، ولكن هناك العديد من الأنماط الفريدة التي يصعب وصفها جميعًا بالتفصيل. تتمتع الأسماك أيضًا بقدرة رائعة على تغيير لونها بناءً على العمر والمزاج والظروف البيئية ومستويات الإجهاد.

إقرأ أيضا:وصف ومعلومات مثيرة عن قرش الحمار الوحشي

لا تنمو هذه الأسماك عادة أكبر من 6 بوصات وحوالي نصف رطل في البرية ، ولكن يبدو أن التقارير تشير إلى أنها يمكن أن تنمو إلى 8 أو 9 بوصات في الأسر. باستثناء موسم التكاثر ، عندما تتضخم بطن الأنثى ، من الصعب جدًا التمييز بين الجنسين.

توزيع أسماك القرص والسكان والموئل

في البرية ، هذه الأسماك مستوطنة حصريًا في روافد وسهول نهر الأمازون . إنه غزير بشكل خاص في قنوات المياه السوداء البطيئة الحركة. بسبب الفيضانات المستمرة التي تحدث على مدار العام ، غالبًا ما تتجمع الأسماك حول الأشجار المتساقطة بالقرب من الشاطئ.

لا يتم تصنيف أنواع القرص الثلاثة حاليًا في القائمة الحمراء للاتحاد الدولي لحفظ الطبيعة ، ولكن يُفترض أنها تتمتع بصحة جيدة ومستقرة لأنها شائعة جدًا في جميع أنحاء أنظمة الأنهار المحلية. ومع ذلك ، فإن تعديل أو فقدان موطنه الطبيعي هو على الأرجح أكبر تهديد لبقاء القرص.

مفترس القرص والفريسة

هذه الأسماك هي جزء وسيط من السلسلة الغذائية. إنه بمثابة رابط مهم بين النباتات والحيوانات المغذية في القاع والحيوانات المفترسة الموجودة فوقه.

ماذا تأكل سمكة القرص؟

تتكون غالبية النظام الغذائي لهذه الأسماك من الطحالب والمواد النباتية الصغيرة الأخرى. يُضاف إلى ذلك اللافقاريات الصغيرة مثل الديدان والقشريات.

إقرأ أيضا:حقائق مذهلة حول مانتا راي (Manta Ray)

مفترسات سمكة القرص

وتشمل الحيوانات المفترسة الرئيسية لهذه الأسماك والسلاحف ، والطيور ، وأكبر الأنواع من الأسماك . ومن المعروف أيضًا أنها تتغذى على اليرقات غير ذات الصلة من نوعها.

تكاثر أسماك القرص وعمرها

بناءً على الملاحظات العلمية ، يبدو أن توقيت تكاثر القرص وموسم التزاوج يتأثر بشدة بالتغيرات في مستوى الفيضان في بيئتهم المحلية. تميل إلى التكاثر بشكل صحيح عندما تبدأ مستويات المياه في الارتفاع كوسيلة للاستفادة من وفرة الغذاء وانخفاض كثافة الحيوانات المفترسة للغابات التي غمرتها الفيضانات التي يتجمعون فيها. عندما يكون الزوجان مستعدين للتزاوج ، فإنهما يبتعدان عن بقية المجموعة ، ربما لتقليل حدوث أكل لحوم البشر. بعد التزاوج ، يفقس البيض عادة في حوالي ثلاثة أو أربعة أيام.

كما هو الحال مع العديد من أنواع البلطي الأخرى ، يستثمر آباء القرص بعض الوقت ويهتمون بتنمية ذريتهم من خلال حراسة البيض وتنظيفه. ومع ذلك ، على عكس العديد من البلطي الأخرى ، فإن القرص لديه تكيف فريد: يفرز مادة تشبه المخاط من خلال جلدهم لتتغذى اليرقات في الأسابيع القليلة الأولى من حياتهم. عندما يبدأ أحد الوالدين بالتعب من هذه العملية ، ستتحول اليرقات إلى والد آخر. في نهاية هذه الفترة ، ستنمو اليرقات بشكل كبير بما يكفي لتدبر أمرها.

سيبدأ القرص الصغير في التكاثر بمفرده بعد عام من العمر. يتراوح العمر النموذجي بين 10 إلى 15 سنة. لكن الحياة صعبة بالنسبة للأسماك الصغيرة ، ويقع الكثير منها فريسة لحيوانات أخرى في البرية قبل أن تصل إلى حجمها الكامل.

سمكة القرص في الصيد والطبخ

نادرا ما يتم صيد القرص في البرية من أجل لحومه. إنه منعزل ، ويصعب الوصول إليه ، وغير مرغوب فيه. لكن القرص غالبًا ما يتم تربيته في بيئات اصطناعية بغرض بيعه في سوق الحيوانات الأليفة. هذا هو المكان الذي أثبتت فيه أنها ذات قيمة لا تصدق.

السابق
حصان الألباني
التالي
معلومات عن سمكة الطبل واهم صفاتها

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